Azhos, biys, manaps

Clans' supervision system in Kyrgyzstan was also aimed at provision of well-being, preserving of originality, independence and integrity of an ethnic formation. Tribal development stage shows, that in those times a tribe was ruled by a chieftain with the help of council of elders. Kyrgyz chieftains of different times were differently named. In ancient Enisei period of their history they called they «azho».  Till now the anarchy period is called by the Kyrgyz as «period of missing of the holding azho, who is keeping kozho» (Ai! - degen azho zhok. Koi'-degen kozho zhok»). Later chieftain was called «biy» (Tagay-biy, Kubat-biy, Azhi-biy, Usup-biy and other) In the 19th century biy was replaced by manap. 

N.I.Grodekov in his book says that Kyrgyz manaps were simply the best people, holding no more honours, than other authorities of the clan and manap is not a full legacy title:  if manap's son is angry or poor, he is no more a manap. Asan Djangeldin writes that «Manap is like Russian Duke None of them was from Gengiz-Khan family (his descendants -D.D.) Manaps were the best from commons (zhurtan ozup), bravest and lavish in wars, who gathered people and ruled them (el bashtagan), i.e. those, who stood out (ozu osup chykkan). They were not selected but if so, they would be chosen»

The presence of natural selection in the system of biy and manap rule in Kyrgyzstan was proven by manap hierarchy names: Chon manap (Chief manap), zhany manap (new manap), Chala manap (not real manap), as well as some historical facts. Hence in Osh outskirts, in the middle of the 18th century, Kubat-biy was the governing head of Kushchu tribe. In the second part of the 18th century, in the same region Azhi-biy was the reigning head of Adigene tribe.  Top biy for that area since the 20th of the 19th century became Alymbek Asan biy uulu.  He represented Adegene tribe, but was not direct ancestor of Azhy - biy's. Another example - famous Baitik batyr after his father death, a chief manap of the South- Kanai, spent his childhood and days of youth in alien tribe in Talas not in good times. Then he returned to Chui valley, his Motherland, when he proved to be a brave and loyal person to other chief - Sarybagysh manap, not his native Soltin manap of Zhantai. Only when he be­came famous for his generosity and braveness, noted by Zhangarach-the chief manap of Soltin tribe, he was often invited for council settings. With time Zhangarach asked Baitik to solve some (initially small) issues. Then, closer to Zhanga-rach's death, the priority of Baitik among other Soltin manaps became absolute.



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