KYRGYZSTAN (kirgiz.Kyrgyzstan), Republic of Kyrgyzstan, a country in Central Asia. It shares borders with Kazakhstan to the north, and China - in the east and southeast and Tajikistan - to the southwest, and Uzbekistan - in the west. From 1936 to 1991 the country was part of the Soviet Union on the Rights of the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic. August 31, 1991 was proclaimed the independence of Kyrgyzstan.
Terrain. Kyrgyzstan - a mountainous country. Most of Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous system of the Tien Shan, and only the extreme south-west belongs to the Pamir-Alai. The highest point - the peak of victory, or Dzhengish-Chokusu (7349 m), located in the Tien Shan in the east, on the border with China. Many of the Tien Shan - Talas Alatau, Kyrgyzstan, Kyung-Ala-Too, Terskey-Ala-Too, etc. - are mostly sublatitudinal. The large Fergana mountain range is oriented from northwest to southeast, and the ridge Kakshan Too - from the south-west to north-east (along the border with China), with a single pass within the Tien Shan Torugart (3752 m). Between the ridges Kyung-Ala-Too and Terskey-Ala-Too is intermontane basin, the bottom is occupied by a large lake of Issyk-Kul, the so-called "Kirghiz sea." To the north of the Kyrgyz Range foothills Chu basin is the most populous part of the development and the country. Extensive Ferghana valley comes into Kyrgyzstan just outside the peripheral parts. In the Kyrgyz part of the Pamir-Alai dominated sublatitudinal relief elements - Alai Range, Alai Valley, Turkestan, and Zaalay (highest point - Lenin Peak, 7,134 m) mountain ranges. In the eastern part of the ridge intersects Zaalay Pamir highway in the Kyzyl-Art Pass. In the top tier of mountain glaciers developed. The snow line is located at an altitude of approx. 3 km to the peripheral ridges and 4.0-4.5 km - on the inner ridges. We present different types of glaciers. The largest of them - dendritic (Inylchek length 59.5 km North Inylchek - 38.2 km), with a few ice-tributaries. In addition, the widespread valley, cirque and hanging glaciers, as well as the characteristic of the Tien Shan glaciers flat tops. Tien Shan is rich in water resources and is a major supplier of water to the surrounding arid plains. Water Resources. In predelahKirgizii more than 3000 lakes, including the picturesque lake of Issyk-Kul - one of the deepest in the world (maximum depth 668 m). Major rivers - Chu, Naryn and Talas rivers - originate in the highlands. Chu takes place in the north of it over the 145 km forms the border of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. Naryn River, merging with r.Karadarey forms Syr Darya, which flows eastward into the Fergana Valley. Talas drains the north-eastern Kyrgyzstan.
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