Nomads' taxes

In the traditional Kyrgyz society Biy, Manaps and common members were closely and mutually related. Influence, authority and power of Biy or Manap in the environment of alikes, in intercian and inter-tribal relationships were much dependent on the economic power of a clan and its image consequently. Therefore Biys and Manaps always cared about the number and economic growth of internal order in a tribe to avoid poor reputation. In its turn, clan authority, protection of each of its member greatly depended on the political power and authority of a senior.

In other words, all members of a tribe were interested in the development of tribal power. It was caused by common living interests in Kyrgyzstan. Each could be protected and secure some help in his clan Customs, based on tribalism, not just ac­cepted and encouraged, but demanded a re­venge from the relatives for injustice or a crime committed against any clan member. On the oth­er hand, clan first, bore responsibility for any member's acts. Purifying oath (ant) was not laid onto culprit, but on more authoritative member of a clan. Penalty was subjected not personally, but at a clan. Failure to pay kun resulted in kill­ing any member of perpetrator's clan, not nec­essarily the murderer himself.

A need to preserve unity and integrity of a clan or tribe, required certain legends and tales, ideal genealogical trees-sanzhyra, to fortify the existence of such unity, and to rein­force the connections between its parts, some­times very far apart from their origin According to this scheme, each Kyrgyz imagined himself, his clan pedigree as a chain of men-predeces­sors, starting from the closest (berki ata) down to the furthest (arky ata) with the ancestor (tup ata) at the top.

Many specialists from N.I.Grodekov to S.M. Abramzon and later ones noted that genealogy tales expressed class ideology explained, that main tale tellers were the richest men and old­est representatives of clans. This is beyond crit­icism. First, genealogy scheme-sanzhyra is a product of pre-class social consciousness. Sec­ondly, the main burden to preserve integrity and well-being of kindred was carried by their au­thorities the eldest representatives. Knowledge of complicated relatives' schemes and other folk tales was included in their own "programm of their professional training and position's duties", which guaranteed correct solutions in the spirit of national traditions and wisdom. Thirdly, the eiders had more opportunities to get familiar with all subtleties of the kindred relations of close and distant Kyrgyz tribes, than common herdsmen.



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